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For centuries stones have been cut and polished with the use of machines driven
by hand power.  These are poorly cut gemstones that continue to be created
today and can easily be found in some of today's Jewelry stores.  The goal has
been to just create some facets all over the stones which can be polished and
make the stone sparkle.  There is no thought as to what angles are used or what
quality of polished surfaces are created.  The main goal is to end up with a
gemstone that has as much weight remaining as possible.  That is because the
more carats the gem weighs, the higher the customers cost will be.  

Modern facetors often use the Native Cut stones as a piece of rough, a starting
point for truly creating a much more beautiful and brilliant gemstone.  Of course
these improvements cause the gemstones to loose weight, but they are much
more beautiful and valuable gemstones when completed.

Later, Jamb Peg machines began to be used and still are used today.  The power
source for these machines has been hand power, water power, steam engine
power, and finally electricity power.  But these too are call "Native Cut" stones
and are considered to be poor quality gemstones.

It has just been in the past 75 years that mechanical faceting machines have
been invented in the more successful countries which have steadily been
improved so that far more accuracy in the cutting polishing and properly placing
of facets is obtained.  

These faceting machines have evolved into several types, such as Mast and
Staff machines, Large Quadrant machines and Platform and Hand Piece
machines.  Most recently Concave faceting machines along with Fantasy
faceting machines have been invented.  These are used by skilled facetors to
create a combination of faceted and carved gemstones.  It is truly amazing what
these gemstones look like when completed by very talented facetors.

The authors book also covers the progress of design patterns, which faceters
need to follow to achieve the best light return and brilliance from the mineral
they are working with.  The angles used and the placing of facets differ one
mineral species to the next.  This all becomes very important for finishing with a
one of a kind, no other like it in the world GEM.