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For centuries stones have been cut and polished with the use of machines driven by hand
power.  These are poorly cut gemstones that continue to be created today and can
easily be found in some of today's Jewelry stores.  The goal has been to just create
some facets all over the stones which can be polished and make the stone sparkle.  
There is no thought as to what angles are used or what quality of polished surfaces are
created.  The main goal is to end up with a gemstone that has as much weight remaining
as possible.  That is because the more carats the gem weighs, the higher the customers
cost will be.  

Modern facetors often use the Native Cut stones as a piece of rough, a starting point
for truly creating a much more beautiful and brilliant gemstone.  Of course these
improvements cause the gemstones to loose weight, but they are much more beautiful
and valuable gemstones when completed.

Later, Jamb Peg machines began to be used and still are used today.  The power source
for these machines has been hand power, water power, steam engine power, and finally
electricity power.  But these too are call "Native Cut" stones and are considered to be
poor quality gemstones.

It has just been in the past 75 years that mechanical faceting machines have been
invented in the more successful countries which have steadily been improved so that far
more accuracy in the cutting polishing and properly placing of facets is obtained.  

These faceting machines have evolved into several types, such as Mast and Staff
machines, Large Quadrant machines and Platform and Hand Piece machines.  Most
recently Concave faceting machines along with Fantasy faceting machines have been
invented.  These are used by skilled facetors to create a combination of faceted and
carved gemstones.  It is truly amazing what these gemstones look like when completed
by very talented facetors.

The authors book also covers the progress of design patterns, which faceters need to
follow to achieve the best light return and brilliance from the mineral they are working
with.  The angles used and the placing of facets differ one mineral species to the next.  
This all becomes very important for finishing with a one of a kind, no other like it in the
world GEM.